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Volume 8 / Issue 2


Over our 90+ years of conducting glass research we have completed numerous analyses which have shaped our understanding of glass strength and failure. We would like to share with you some case studies that are noteworthy examples of fracture diagnosis techniques. Here is a prelude along with the first case study. 

Case Study Prelude

A critical step in the analysis of a breakage problem is to perform a thorough fracture analysis of the samples. Unfortunately, the difficulty in analyzing a broken glass article can range from being very simple to being very complex depending on the mode of failure, the totality and number of fragments that are available for analyses, the integrity of the fragments, etc. 

The purpose of  the fracture analyses is to identify the precise location where the fracture originated, to identify the nature and severity of the flaw at the fracture origin site and to identify the type (failure mode) and magnitude of the force that was acting on the article at the time of failure using standard fracture analysis techniques.

It is helpful to identify the nature of the flaw and whether it is a glass forming irregularity or handling damage. It is also important to examine the sample to determine if there other conditions, such as thin glass, poor glass distribution, high annealing stresses or high cord stress were an additional  factor in the breakage. Once all of the key factors have been determined, it is then necessary to compile the collected data to determine if the strength of the glass surface was unusually low or if the magnitude of the tensile stress was unusually high.  The cumulative answers derived from the analysis will reveal the cause of the failure and the potential corrective action that must be taken to remedy the breakage problem in the future. 

Here is our first case study, entitled, "Bottle Breakage During Quality Assurance Testing" written by AGR Senior Scientist, Gary Smay.
Two Popular AGR live webinars have have been converted to on-demand E-seminars   

"Sand to Shelf: Essentials of Glass Containers" & "Pharmaceutical Glass Flaws" are now available to view at your convenience.

“Sand to Shelf: Essentials of Glass Containers” is an 8-part training course offering a comprehensive overview of glass container science, manufacturing, testing and fracture diagnosis. The E-seminar is conveniently divided into 39 modules (8 to 15 minutes in length) that allows the participant to progress at their own pace. There are quizzes to confirm comprehension, and a certificate will be issued upon completion. Learn more, see a free preview or register HERE.

"Pharmaceutical Glass Flaws" is new, 2.5-hour E-seminar broken into 12 modules covers the visual identification of flaws in pharmaceutical glass containers – specifically flaws in molded and tubing pharmaceutical packaging such as vials and syringes. For each flaw, attendees will learn its identifying characteristics, its source, and the effect that the flaw has on container performance.

Hundreds of photographs will familiarize attendees with representative examples of each flaw.  Trainees will also be provided with crucial information for corrective actions. The E-seminar is self-paced and available on-demand.  Learn more, see our free preview or register HERE.
Our Experts were asked...

Q: Why is finding the origin so in important in diagnosing the cause of breakage?
A:  Successfully identifying the fracture origin provides the investigator with a wealth of knowledge including:
  • The type of flaw (manufacturing or handling)
  • The failure surface (inside or outside of the container)
  • The breaking stress (high = mild flaw or low = severe flaw)
  • The load magnitude (normal or excessive)
  • The type of stress (bending or uniform)
  • The glass thickness (thin or sufficient)
All of this information can be used to create a corrective action plan to avoid similar breakage in the future.

If you have questions about glass breakage, please ASK OUR EXPERTS.
In-person Training Seminars gets underway 

Agr continues to actively monitor the current conditions of the Pandemic as it relates to our seminars. We are pleased to announce that limited in-person training is now being conducted. Addtionally we now offer live webinars and on-demand E-seminars. Learn more HERE.

Here are our upcoming in-person seminars:
Watch for our upcoming live, webinar "Spotlight On: Container  Coatings - Purpose and Practicality".  This webinar reviews the role of surface coatings in the maintenance of glass surface strength, their application in both the hot end and the cold end, and the practical aspects of performance. More information will be available soon. 

Private customized on-location training is also available.

To learn more about all of our in-person seminars, visit our Seminar Catalogue  or if you would like to discuss Private Training Contact Us .  To learn more about our webinars or on-demand E-seminars and to see previews visit our E-seminars website.
American Glass Research
603 Evans City Road, Butler, PA 16001
Tel: +1 (724) 482-2163
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American Glass Research · 603 Evans City Road · Butler, PA 16001 · USA

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