In the medieval Highlands there were two types of marriage. The ancient secular union was organized by the families of the couple, and the marriage was confirmed in the bedroom. The church was not involved at all. In 1140, one writer said for a marriage to be considered binding it needed only “the act of physical union” and “marital love.”
From the thirteenth century a new form of marriage developed, one based on church law. The age of consent became twelve for a girl and fourteen for a boy at that time but most people married much later anyway. It tended to only be royal weddings that involved children.
In church weddings vows were exchanged in the churchyard first of all. The husband would then place a ring on his wife's finger as in the picture below.
Sometimes the couple would exchange rings. Only when this was done would the couple enter the church for Mass and the Blessing as in the image below.
Once that was over, a feast was held to celebrate the union.
Around the thirteenth century, the practise of Reading the Banns began. The local priest would place a notice on the church door that a couple intended to marry. The notice would mention that anyone who knew why they couldn't marry had three weeks to make the reason known.
How does that compare to the marriages in some of your favorite historical romances?