28 June 2020   Click here to View this email in your browser 
Annual General Meeting


Thank you to the participants of our third Annual General Meeting on 11th June. If you haven't yet received our post meeting survey, you might find it in your junk email.

The recorded webinar of the AGM is located on our website on the Past Webinars page.

BMS2000 Database


Date and Time: Thursday, 9 July 2020 - 20:00 EDT

Presenter: Johanne Gervais

Looking for a refresher course on how to navigate in the BMS2000 database? Need a few tips to help find that elusive record buried somewhere in the BMS2000?  Seeking a way to refine your mountain of search results? If so, this webinar is for you.

Click here to register

New Member Orientation


Date and Time: Monday, 13 July 2020 - 19:00 EDT

Presenter: Johanne Gervais

This webinar is scheduled for the second Monday of every month. Join us to help familiarize yourself with all the features of the eSociety including using the Resource Links, Members' Forum, and the PRDH, BMS2000, and Fichier Origine databases.

Click here to register

Don't forget our Past Webinars page on our website has recorded webinars that you can view at your leisure. 

If you would like to share your genealogical interests or expertise in a webinar, please contact us. We are looking for speakers for our 2020 webinar series.
Members' Forum
Looking for help in breaking down your brick walls?

Don't forget to list your brick wall on our
 Members' Forum page on our website.
Resource Links
General Resource Links

This newsletter continues with more additions to our General Resource Links section.

Our General Resource Links section on our website consists of resource links that do not fit in one of Quebec’s 17 administrative regions. This section includes resources to help you with your research on Acadians, Quebec adoptees, your ancestors in France, Métis, Quebec land records, Quebec military records, Quebec cemetery transcriptions, New France census records and much more.

To access this superb set of Quebec resources, on our website click on the Resources main menu then click on the Resource Links sub-menu. Scroll to the very bottom and click on the General Resource Links tab.

Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 

The rebellions in Lower Canada were led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and his  Patriotes, as well as more moderate French Canadian nationalists. Together, they dominated the elected Legislative Assembly. Since the 1820s, they had peacefully opposed the authority of the Catholic Church. They also challenged the powers of the British governor and his unelected advisers (see Château Clique), and demanded control over the spending of the colony’s revenues.
Their political demands, which included democratic pleas for responsible government, were rejected in London. Meanwhile, French Canadian farmers suffered through an economic depression in the 1830s. In the urban areas, tensions rose between French Canadians and the anglophone minority. All of this led to protest rallies across the colony and calls for armed insurrection from the more radical Patriotes.
There were two outbursts of violence. The first was in November 1837. Patriote rebels fought trained British regulars and anglophone volunteers in a series of skirmishes. The defeat of the disorganized rebels was followed by widespread anglophone looting and burning of French-Canadian settlements. Papineau and other rebel leaders fled to the United States.
With the help of American volunteers, a second rebellion was launched in November 1838. However, it too was poorly organized and was quickly put down. It was followed by further looting and devastation in the countryside.
The two uprisings left 325 people dead, all of them rebels except for 27 British soldiers. Nearly 100 rebels were captured. After the second uprising failed, Papineau left the U.S. for exile in Paris.

The Battle of Saint-Eustache, Lower Canada

The following resource links might help you identify if any of your ancestors were incarcerated during these rebellions.

1058 Persons Incarcerated During the 1837 Rebellion in Lower Canada

During the 1837 rebellion and the following three years, 1058 Canadians, mostly French Canadians, were arrested and incarcerated without judgment on presumption of being rebels. The most common cause for presumption was for having been seen attending a public rally held by one of the political orators or having signed, usually with an X mark, a petition for changes to the government. The whistle blowers usually benefited by getting some of the confiscated belongings of the incarcerated. Hence the incentive.

Many were liberated after a few weeks, returning to vandalized houses or no house at all, but some were kept in jail for 3 or more years while others were deported and twelve were hanged.

This database does not have a search feature; however, you could click on the letters of the alphabet to get an alphabetical listing.

List of Patriots Prisoners 1837-1838-1839-1840
This resource link covers all the prisons in Quebec from 1837 to 1840. This list is divided as follows: THE PRISONERS, DEPORTED AND EXILES OF 1838, THE 58 DEPORTED OF 1839, THE TWELVE HANGED PATRIOTS and a TABLE OF DATES. A small number of Patriots were arrested more than once. The full names or surnames known to some Patriots have been added as well as the place of residence known to date. 
List of the 108 Lower Canadians prosecuted before the general court-martial of Montreal in 1838–39

Wikipedia has a list of the 108 Lower Canadians prosecuted before the general court-martial of Montreal in 1838-1839. The trials occurred between December 6, 1838 and May 1, 1839, following the suspension of habeas corpus on November 8, 1838. Nine of the persons in custody were acquitted, and 99 sentenced to death. 12 patriots were hanged in public between December 1838 and February 1839. Of the 99 who were initially condemned to death, 58 saw their sentence commuted into deportation to Australia on September 27, 1839. (Pardoned in 1843, they returned home in 1845.) There were 29 freed under bail or condition.

Canadian convicts sent to Australia

From 1839 to 1840 a number of convicts were transported from the British colony of Canada (known then as Upper Canada) for taking part in the rebellions against the British crown. There were 82 American patriots, who had crossed the border, and 58 were French prisoners from Lower Canada.

The following is a partial list from this website:

The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 in Lower Canada
This is an historical booklet from the Canadian Historical Association of Canada.


The term "Loyalists" refers to American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown. Many of them served under the British during the American Revolution (1775-1783).
Some fled north during the war of independence. Some came after, fleeing persecution by the victorious  revolutionaries. Loyalists settled in what are now the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Ontario. 

If you are looking for information on the Loyalists in Quebec, the following resource links may be helpful:

Loyalist Settlement In Quebec

This is a 4-page document describing the Loyalist settlement in Quebec.
The Settlement of the Eastern Townships by the Loyalists: Myth or Reality?

This website displays a documentary record produced by the Eastern Townships Resource Centre and is very informative with plenty of explanations and pictures. 

United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada

This is a wonderful website to learn more about the Loyalists in Canada, the activities of the Association, and among many other features to peruse the Directory of Loyalists to see if one of your ancestors is listed.

Remember to go to our General Resource Links section on our website to access all of the above resource links.

If you have found an interesting resource link that is not on our website, please let us know and we will add it.
Contact us
Did You Know?

Super-ancestors in the genealogy of French Canadians 

BALSAC Population Database


Did you know there are super-ancestors in the genealogy of French Canadians who stand out for their large number of occurrences in the same genealogy?

You boast yourself for having an ancestor named Abraham Martin, famous because his land on Cap Diamant in Quebec City became the famous “Plains of Abraham”? You can be proud, but you are far from unique. Abraham Martin and his wife Marguerite Langlois appear not only in the genealogy of the majority of French Canadians, but they can also be counted more than once within the same genealogy.


The number of occurrences represents the number of times that an ancestor is counted within the same genealogy

But by which phenomenon can an ancestor appear several times in the same genealogy?

In the fictional family tree below, the parents of Julie Tremblay are first cousins because they share common grandparents.
The couple Joseph Tremblay and Agathe Côté therefore appears twice in Julie’s genealogy.

In a real family tree that spreads over many generations, the same phenomenon occurs very often. To demonstrate this, we reconstructed the genealogy of 25,757 individuals whose parents married in Quebec between 1925 and 1948. Nearly 600,000 ancestors distributed among 16 generations were found in the BALSAC database. Among these ancestors, certain couples stand out for their large number of occurrences within a genealogy. Here are the three most important.


Pierre TREMBLAY and Anne ACHON: This couple of French immigrants who married in Quebec in 1657 are ancestors to all the Tremblays of Quebec. Found in about 46% of genealogies, the couple TREMBLAY-ACHON holds the record for the largest number of occurrences appearing up to 92 times within the same genealogy


Abraham MARTIN and Marguerite LANGLOIS: The MARTIN-LANGLOIS couple arrived in New France around 1620. They have a very large descent by their daughters. The couple appears in 77% of genealogies with a maximum number of occurrences of 69 in the same genealogy.


Zacharie CLOUSTIER and Sainte DUPONT : Married in France in 1616, this couple immigrated to New France with five children. It appears in nearly 82% of genealogies. We have counted it up to 50 times within the same genealogy.

Data Source: BALSAC Population register, 25 757 genealogies of married couples between 1925 and 1948

In the News

Can Your Family Tree Pass the 5 Step “Proof” Test? 

Family History Daily
By Janet Maydem
24 June 2020

For most of us, starting the journey of discovering our ancestors and adding them to a family tree is very exciting. For the first time we are proving or denying old family stories, discovering new relations, reading over hard-to-decipher records and figuring out where we fit into the past.

But, as we eagerly add names to our files, it can be easy to forget how important it is to verify every single fact individually. And doing otherwise can lead to a family tree packed with inaccuracies and ancestors that aren’t even our own.

Family History Daily has numerous articles and lessons about the importance of verifying facts and avoiding common mistakes (such as copying from other people’s trees), but today we want to focus on the best way that you can ensure every part of your tree is as accurate as possible – the Genealogical Proof Standard.

The Genealogical Proof Standard (GPS) helps genealogists sort out, verify, and document facts through simple, straightforward guidance. Whether it be a new branch in your tree, a vital date (such as birth or death) or even an occupation – using the GPS will help you ensure your tree is as solid as possible.

So, whether you have been building on your research for decades and want to review your facts, or are just starting out, take a few moments to discover what the Standard is and how you can apply it to your own tree.

What is the Genealogical Proof Standard?

The Genealogical Proof Standard was developed by the Board for Certification of Genealogists. It ensures that researchers make the effort to verify the facts they present in their family trees.

Below, we have outlined each element that is used in the 5-step verification process for facts and, below that, we have created an example to help you see how these steps can be applied directly to your own personal research.

The genealogical proof standard includes these 5 elements:
  1. Reasonably exhaustive research. Does the fact in question come from multiple sources and what is the quality of those sources? For example, if a birth record is substantiated by a family member, an original church record, and a record in a state birth index, the confidence that the birth date is correct increases substantially. Searching for and recording all of these sources would be considered reasonably exhaustive. When relying on a single source, ensure that it is reliable enough for this purpose (look for an original, primary source that was created at the time of the event vs a secondary source created later or an index that could have been incorrectly transcribed for instance) or look for additional sources to help bolster the likelihood that an inaccuracy is not present.
  2. Citation of sources. Once you have your sources, write down where you got the information from wherever you are storing your facts (in your tree). Include the title of the record, author if applicable, year of publication, and where the record is kept along with the attached original record. Many online resources include correct citations that you can use to document your sources, often found at the bottom of the page. Many online sites, such as Ancestry and MyHeritage, create citations for you automatically when you add a record to your tree but be careful to always download original records as well.
  3. Analysis and correlation of information. Does your fact fit together with other facts in your tree? Does it make sense? Are the sources reliable, as discussed above. If not, is there a logical explanation for any discrepancies? Step back and really make sure you have a story that holds up against the evidence, not just something you assume happened.
  4. Resolution of conflicts. This one is closely tied to number three. Have you been able to address and resolve the discrepancies you found during the analysis or any new discrepancies that arise? Are there any other conflicts you need to address? If so, resolve every single one.
  5. Conclusion and presentation. If you have a particularly troublesome or complicated fact, make sure that you write up the process that you followed to arrive at your conclusion somewhere in your family tree. Be ready to present this if someone questions the accuracy of your fact.

An Example of How to Apply the Genealogical Proof Standard to Your Research

While the GPS should be be applied to all facts in your tree, it is especially helpful if you have a fact about an ancestor that you are reasonably sure is correct, but you haven’t been able to prove with direct evidence.

Let’s use the case of my great-great-great grandfather, William Rogers, as an example. My mother knows his death date and the location where he lived when he died but has searched for years for William Rogers’s grave and has been unsuccessful.

She is reasonably sure of the location of the cemetery the grave would be in, however. We can use the Genealogical Proof Standard to document why my mother’s conclusion about his burial is most likely correct, despite the fact that she cannot locate the tombstone.

  1. Exhaustive Research: William Rogers died in Jefferson County, Wisconsin on 14 April 1866. My mother spent many years searching for his grave, but was never able to find his tombstone despite being sure he is buried in a certain cemetery. My mother has gathered several pieces of additional evidence – including his death record proving place of death, a census record that showed him living in Hebron Township, Jefferson County in 1860 and demonstrating that he lived here for some time before death, a death record in Hebron Township for his first wife, Margaret Elmendorf, from January 1860, a marriage record from Whitewater, Walworth County, Wisconsin that documents his second marriage to Hannah Gray in 1865, and a plat map that shows that Hannah Gray owned land in Cold Spring Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. A number of relations where also found to have been buried in the suspected cemetery and no known additional family cemetery exists. All of this documents his connection to the place, the fact that he died here and that there is not another likely spot of his burial.
  2. Citation of sources: My mother has documented all of these sources in her family tree. Her sources are historical records of high quality.
  3. Analysis and correlation of information: The pieces my mother has assembled make sense, especially when you look on a map. Hebron Township and Cold Spring Township are adjacent to each other, so William Rogers lived in close proximity to Hannah Gray. The northern portion of Whitewater, the city where they were married, lies in Jefferson County, adjacent to Cold Spring Township. Hannah Gray’s land was very close to the Cold Spring Cemetery in Cold Spring Township. All of the places in the records are in very close proximity to each other.
  4. Resolution of conflicts: The one conflict in this case that still exists is that William Rogers may have been buried in the Cold Spring Cemetery, near his second wife’s land, or he may have been buried next to his first wife. Based on evidence related to William Roger’s children and where they lived after the death of his first wife, my mother concluded that the decision on where to bury William Rogers was most likely left to his second wife.
  5. Conclusion and presentation: The conclusion is that William Rogers is most likely buried in the Cold Spring Cemetery, Cold Spring Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. In her presentation, my mother has also noted that he may be buried in Hebron Township, but that Cold Spring Cemetery is the most likely location.

By applying the Genealogical Proof Standard, my mother has narrowed this long-standing mystery to one primary location and one secondary location.

When looking for places to apply the GPS in your tree, pay special attention to:

  1. The connections between generations (are the parents really the right parents)
  2. Old facts that existed before common government vital records as they can be harder to interpret or more likely to contain errors 
  3. People with common names as they are easily mixed up 
  4. Facts you do not have primary sources for
  5. Facts that seem misplaced in your tree for any reason
  6. Facts for people who had multiple names in their lives (first, nickname or surname)
  7. Facts based on family details, or other people’s trees, without enough source material
  8. Mysteries, as you critically review evidence you may uncover new facts or avenues of research
  9. Facts based almost entirely on census records (this is a common mistake and census records are notoriously prone to error)
  10. Old facts you have not examined in awhile, especially if new information has surfaced about the family

By applying this process to all of your research, or at least those facts that are in question, you can help ensure that the family tree you hope to share with your descendants is as accurate as possible.

The Archive Lady: Laminating vs. Encapsulation, What’s the Difference? 

Abundant Genealogy
Posted by: Melissa Barker 11 June 2020

Should you laminate family history documents? Melissa Barker, aka The Archive Lady, emphatically says NO to lamination and here’s why!

Georgia in Kansas asks: “I have a bunch of old family letters and my preservation plan is to laminate them and encapsulate them so that they are protected. In your opinion, is this a good way to preserve old family letters and other genealogical records?”

Georgia asks a very good question and one that I take very serious as an archivist. I applaud her for taking steps to preserve her precious old family letters but lamination is NOT the process that she needs to use. Lamination is not a preservation process and will only damage her documents.

It is very easy to confuse the terms lamination and encapsulation. Many think they are one in the same. They are very different:

  • Lamination: A process in which plastic sheets are adhered to the document itself by using heat to melt the plastic sheets to the actual document. The document cannot be easily removed from the laminated sheets. The laminated documents are very shiny in appearance.
  • Encapsulation: A process where documents are sandwiched between stable, archival plastic sheets. The sheets are sealed around the document by static electricity. Nothing is directly attached to the document or melted to the document during this process. The document can be easily removed from the plastic sheets if desired.

Lamination is one the most destructive processes anyone can do to historical or genealogical documents. Lamination is not used by archivists today to preserve records or any other paper documents because it is so destructive. When the process of laminating first came on the scene it was widely used by archives from the 1930’s to the 1970’s when no one knew the full extent of the destructive nature of this process. Large archives such as the National Archives and the Library of Congress were laminating documents in earnest in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Since the 1970’s, archives have been de-laminating documents as fast as they can to stop the damage that has wreaked havoc in many records collections.

In the archives world we have a saying “Don’t do anything to a document that you cannot undo”. Lamination is one of those things that you cannot undo without causing further damage. Here are some other reasons why you do not want to laminate your family records:

  • Lamination is almost impossible to reverse without causing great risk to the document itself.
  • The lamination process actually melts into the paper fibres of the document which makes de-laminating difficult to almost impossible to accomplish.
  • Removing the lamination requires the use of solvents and chemicals that could potentially damage the inks, the paper or the person’s skin carrying out this process.
  • The plastics used in lamination, usually cellulose acetate, are themselves inherently unstable and over time will deteriorate and cause more damage to the documents.
  • De-laminating documents can be extremely costly to have done and could potentially damage the documents further. Anyone considering de-laminating their documents should consult with a professional conservator.

Protecting our family records from deterioration and damage should be one of the first priorities as a genealogist. Laminating documents is not the way to go and should never be considered a preservation method.

Using archival plastic sheets, archival file folders and boxes is the way to go to preserve old family letters and any other original documents we have in our genealogical collections.

All of our archived newsletters are located on our website under the About Us main menu tab.

We want to hear from you, contact us with your suggestions for future newsletters.
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Québec Genealogical eSociety · 1670 rue Gauthier · Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec J3V 3H7 · Canada

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